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Wednesday, January 11, 2023

New Age of Presents : CAITANYA CARITAMRTA: ADI LILA CHAPTER 8 :The Tree of Devotional Service

 A summary of Chapter Nine has been given as follows by Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura in his Amṛta-pravāha-bhāṣya. In the Ninth Chapter the author of Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta has devised a figurative example by describing the “plant of bhakti.” He considers Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, who is known as Viśvambhara, to be the gardener of this plant because He is the main personality who has taken charge of it. As the supreme enjoyer, He enjoyed the flowers Himself and distributed them as well. The seed of the plant was first sown in Navadvīpa, the birthsite of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and then the plant was brought to Puruṣottama-kṣetra (Jagannātha Purī) and then to Vṛndāvana. The seed fructified first in Śrīla Mādhavendra Purī and then his disciple Śrī Īśvara Purī. It is figuratively described that both the tree itself and the trunk of the tree are Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. The devotees, headed by Paramānanda Purī and eight other great sannyāsīs, are like the spreading roots of the tree. From the main trunk there extend two special branches, Advaita Prabhu and Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu, and from those branches grow other branches and twigs. The tree surrounds the entire world, and the flowers of the tree are to be distributed to everyone. In this way the tree of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu intoxicates the entire world. It should be noted that this is a figurative example meant to explain the mission of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu.


taṁ śrīmat-kṛṣṇa-caitanya-

devaṁ vande jagad-gurum

yasyānukampayā śvāpi

mahābdhiṁ santaret sukham


tam-unto Him; śrīmat-with all opulence; kṛṣṇa-caitanya-devam-unto Lord Kṛṣṇa Caitanyadeva; vande-I offer obeisances; jagat-gurum-spiritual master of the world; yasya-whose; anukampayā-by the mercy of; śvā api-even a dog; mahā-abdhīm-great ocean; santaret-can swim; sukham-without difficulty.


Let me offer my respectful obeisances unto the spiritual master of the entire world, Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Mahāprabhu, by whose mercy even a dog can swim across a great ocean.


Sometimes it is to be seen that a dog can swim in the water for a few yards and then come back to the shore. Here, however, it is stated that if a dog is blessed by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, he can swim across an ocean. Similarly, the author of Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī, placing himself in a helpless condition, states that he has no personal power, but by the desire of Lord Caitanya, expressed through the Vaiṣṇavas and Madana-mohana vigraha, it is possible for him to cross a transcendental ocean to present Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta.


jaya jaya śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya gauracandra

jaya jayādvaita jaya jaya nityānanda


jaya jaya-all glories; śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya-to Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; gauracandra-whose name is Gaurahari; jaya jaya-all glories; advaita-to Advaita Gosāñi; jaya jaya-all glories; nityānanda-to Nityānanda.


All glories to Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya, who is known as Gaurahari! All glories to Advaita and Nityānanda Prabhu!


jaya jaya śrīvāsādi gaura-bhakta-gaṇa

sarvābhīṣṭa-pūrti-hetu yāṅhāra smaraṇa


jaya jaya-all glories; śrīvāsa-ādi-to Śrīvāsa and others; gaura-bhakta-gaṇa-all the devotees of Lord Caitanya; sarva-abhīṣṭa-all ambition; pūrti-satisfaction; hetu-for the matter of; yāṅhāra-whose; smaraṇa-remembrance.


All glories to the devotees of Lord Caitanya, headed by Śrīvāsa Ṭhākura! In order to fulfill all my desires, I remember their lotus feet.


The author here continues to follow the same principles of worship of the Pañca-tattva that were described in the Seventh Chapter of the Ādi-līlā.


śrī-rūpa, sanātana, bhaṭṭa raghunātha

śrī-jīva, gopāla-bhaṭṭa, dāsa-raghunātha


śrī-rūpa-Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī; sanātana-Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī; bhaṭṭa raghunātha-Raghunātha Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī; śrī-jīva-Śrī Jīva Gosvāmī; gopāla-bhaṭṭa-Śrī Gopāla Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī; dāsa-raghunātha-Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī.


I also remember the six Gosvāmīs-Rūpa, Sanātana, Bhaṭṭa Raghunātha, Śrī Jīva, Gopāla Bhaṭṭa and Dāsa Raghunātha.


This is the process for writing transcendental literature. A sentimentalist who has no Vaiṣṇava qualifications cannot produce transcendental writings. There are many fools who consider kṛṣṇa-līlā to be a subject of art and write or paint pictures about the pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa with the gopīs, sometimes depicting them in a manner practically obscene. These fools take pleasure in material sense gratification, but one who wants to make advancement in spiritual life must scrupulously avoid their literature. Unless one is a servant of Kṛṣṇa and the Vaiṣṇavas, as Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī presents himself to be in offering respects to Lord Caitanya, His associates and His disciples, one should not attempt to write transcendental literature.


esaba-prasāde likhi caitanya-līlā-guṇa

jāni vā nā jāni, kari āpana-śodhana


esaba-all these; prasāde-by the mercy of; likhi-I write; caitanya-of Lord Caitanya; līlā-guṇa-pastimes and qualities; jāni-know; vā-or; nā-not; jāni-know; kari-do; āpana-self; śodhana-purification.


It is by the mercy of all these Vaiṣṇavas and gurus that I attempt to write about the pastimes and qualities of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Whether I know or know not, it is for self-purification that I write this book.


This is the sum and substance of transcendental writing. One must be an authorized Vaiṣṇava, humble and pure. One should write transcendental literature to purify oneself, not for credit. By writing about the pastimes of the Lord, one associates with the Lord directly. One should not ambitiously think, “I shall become a great author. I shall be celebrated as a writer.” These are material desires. One should attempt to write for self-purification. It may be published or it may not be published, but that does not matter. If one is actually sincere in writing, all his ambitions will be fulfilled. Whether one is known as a great author is incidental. One should not attempt to write transcendental literature for material name and fame.


mālā-kāraḥ svayaṁ kṛṣṇa-

premāmara-taruḥ svayam

dātā bhoktā tat-phalānāṁ

yas taṁ caitanyam āśraye


mālā-kāraḥ-gardener; svayam-Himself; kṛṣṇa-Lord Kṛṣṇa; prema-love; amara-transcendental; taruḥ-tree; svayam-Himself; dātā-giver; bhoktā-enjoyer; tat-phalānām-of all the fruits of that tree; yaḥ-one who; tam-unto Him; caitanyam-Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; āśraye-I take shelter.


I take shelter of the Supreme Personality of Godhead Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, who Himself is the tree of transcendental love of Kṛṣṇa, its gardener and also the bestower and enjoyer of its fruits.


prabhu kahe, āmi ‘viśvambhara’ nāma dhari

nāma sārthaka haya, yadi preme viśva bhari


prabhu kahe-the Lord said; āmi-I; viśvambhara-Viśvambhara; nāma-named; dhari-accept; nāma-the name; sārthaka-complete; haya-becomes; yadi-if; preme-in love of God; viśva-the whole universe; bhari-fulfilled.


Lord Caitanya thought, “My name is Viśvambhara, ‘one who maintains the entire universe.’ Its meaning will be actualized if I can fill the whole universe with love of Godhead.”


eta cinti’ lailā prabhu mālākāra-dharma

navadvīpe ārambhilā phalodyāna-karma


eta cinti’-thinking like this; lailā-took; prabhu-the Lord; mālā-kāra-dharma-the business of a gardener; navadvīpe-in Navadvīpa; ārambhilā-began; phala-udyāna-garden; karma-activities.


Thinking in this way, He accepted the duty of a planter and began to grow a garden in Navadvīpa.


śrī-caitanya mālākāra pṛthivīte āni’

bhakti-kalpataru ropilā siñci’ icchā-pāni


śrī-caitanya-Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; mālā-kāra-gardener; pṛthivīte-on this planet; āni’-bringing; bhakti-kalpa-taru-the desire tree of devotional service; ropilā-sowed; siñci’-watering; icchā-will; pāni-water.


Thus the Lord brought the desire tree of devotional service to this earth and became its gardener. He sowed the seed and sprinkled upon it the water of His will.


In many places devotional service has been compared to a creeper. One has to sow the seed of the devotional creeper, bhakti-latā, within his heart. As he regularly hears and chants, the seed will fructify and gradually grow into a mature plant and then produce the fruit of devotional service, namely, love of Godhead, which the gardener (mālā-kāra) can then enjoy without impediments.


jaya śrī mādhavapurī kṛṣṇa-prema-pūra

bhakti-kalpatarura teṅho prathama aṅkura


jaya-all glories; śrī mādhava-purī-unto Mādhavendra Purī; kṛṣṇa-prema-pūra-a storehouse of all love of Godhead; bhakti-kalpa-tarura-of the desire tree of devotional service; teṅho-he is; prathama-first; aṅkura-fructification.


All glories to Śrī Mādhavendra Purī, the storehouse of all devotional service unto Kṛṣṇa! He is a desire tree of devotional service, and it is in him that the seed of devotional service first fructified.


Śrī Mādhavendra Purī, also known as Śrī Mādhava Purī, belonged to the disciplic succession from Madhvācārya and was a greatly celebrated sannyāsī. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was the third disciplic descendant from Śrī Mādhavendra Purī. The process of worship in the disciplic succession of Madhvācārya was full of ritualistic ceremonies, with hardly a sign of love of Godhead; Śrī Mādhavendra Purī was the first person in that disciplic succession to exhibit the symptoms of love of Godhead and the first to write a poem beginning with the words ayi dīna-dayārdra nātha, “O supremely merciful Personality of Godhead.” In that poem is the seed of Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s cultivation of love of Godhead.


śrī-iśvarapurī-rūpe aṅkura puṣṭa haila

āpane caitanya-mālī skandha upajila


śrī-īśvara-purī-by the name Śrī Īśvara Purī; rūpe-in the form of; aṅkura-the seed; puṣṭa-cultivated; haila-became; āpane-Himself; caitanya-mālī-the gardener of the name Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; skandha-trunk; upajila-expanded.


The seed of devotional service next fructified in the form of Śrī Īśvara Purī, and then the gardener Himself, Caitanya Mahāprabhu, became the main trunk of the tree of devotional service.


Śrī Īśvara Purī was a resident of Kumāra-haṭṭa, where there is now a railroad station known as Kāmarhaṭṭa. Nearby there is also another station named Hālisahara, which belongs to the Eastern Railway that runs from the eastern section of Calcutta.

Īśvara Purī appeared in a brāhmaṇa family and was the most beloved disciple of Śrīla Mādhavendra Purī. In the last portion of Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta (Antya 8.28-31), it is stated:

īśvara-purī gosāñi kare śrī-pada sevana
sva-haste karena mala-mūtrādi mārjana

nirantara kṛṣṇa-nāma karāya smaraṇa
kṛṣṇa-nāma kṛṣṇa-līlā śunāya anukṣaṇa

tuṣṭa hañā purī tāṅre kaila āliṅgana
vara dilā kṛṣṇe tomāra ha-uka prema-dhana

sei haite īśvara-purī premera sāgara

“At the last stage of his life Śrī Mādhavendra Purī became an invalid and was completely unable to move, and Īśvara Purī so completely engaged himself in his service that he personally cleaned up his stool and urine. Always chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra and reminding Śrī Mādhavendra Purī about the pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa in the last stage of his life, Īśvara Purī gave the best service among his disciples. Thus Mādhavendra Purī, being very pleased with him, blessed him, saying, ‘My dear boy, I can only pray to Kṛṣṇa that He will be pleased with you.’ Thus Īśvara Purī, by the grace of his spiritual master, Śrī Mādhavendra Purī, became a great devotee in the ocean of love of Godhead.” Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī states in his Gurv-aṣṭaka prayer, yasya prasādād bhagavat-prasādo yasyāprasādān na gatiḥ kuto ‘pi: “By the mercy of the spiritual master one is blessed by the mercy of Kṛṣṇa. Without the grace of the spiritual master one cannot make any advancement.” It is by the mercy of the spiritual master that one becomes perfect, as vividly exemplified here. A Vaiṣṇava is always protected by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but if he appears to be an invalid, this gives a chance to his disciples to serve him. Īśvara Purī pleased his spiritual master by service, and by the blessings of his spiritual master he became such a great personality that Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu accepted him as His spiritual master.

Śrīla Īśvara Purī was the spiritual master of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, but before initiating Lord Caitanya he went to Navadvīpa and lived for a few months in the house of Gopīnātha Ācārya. At that time Lord Caitanya became acquainted with him, and it is understood that he served Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu by reciting his book, Kṛṣṇa-līlāmṛta. This is explained in Śrī Caitanya-bhāgavata, Ādi-līlā, Chapter Eleven.

To teach others by example how to be a faithful disciple of one’s spiritual master, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, visited the birthplace of Īśvara Purī at Kāmarhaṭṭa and collected some earth from his birthsite. This He kept very carefully, and He used to eat a small portion of it daily. This is stated in the Caitanya-bhāgavata, Ādi-līlā, Chapter Seventeen. It has now become customary for devotees, following the example of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, to go there and collect some earth from that place.


nijācintya-śaktye mālī hañā skandha haya

sakala śākhāra sei skandha mūlāśraya


nija-His own; acintya-inconceivable; śaktye-by potency; mālī-gardener; hañā-becoming; skandha-trunk; haya-became; sakala-all; śākhāra-of other branches; sei-that; skandha-trunk; mūla-āśraya-original support.


By His inconceivable powers, the Lord became the gardener, the trunk and the branches simultaneously.

TEXTS 13-15

paramānanda purī, āra keśava bhāratī

brahmānanda purī, āra brahmānanda bhāratī

viṣṇu-purī, keśava-purī, purī kṛṣṇānanda

śrī-nṛsiṁhatīrtha, āra purī sukhānanda

ei nava mūla nikasila vṛkṣa-mūle

ei nava mūle vṛkṣa karila niścale


paramānanda purī-of the name Paramānanda Purī; āra-and; keśava bhāratī-of the name Keśava Bhāratī; brahmānanda purī-of the name Brahmānanda Purī; āra-and; brahmānanda bhāratī-of the name Brahmānanda Bhāratī; viṣṇu-purī-of the name Viṣṇu Purī; keśava-purī-of the name Keśava Purī; purī kṛṣṇānanda-of the name Kṛṣṇānanda Purī; śrī-nṛsiṁha-tīrtha-of the name Śrī Nṛsiṁha Tīrtha; āra-and; purī sukhānanda-of the name Sukhānanda Purī; ei nava-of these nine; mūla-roots; nikasila-fructified; vṛkṣa-mūle-in the trunk of the tree; ei nava mūle-in these nine roots; vṛkṣa-the tree; karila niścale-became very steadfast.


Paramānanda Purī, Keśava Bhāratī, Brahmānanda Purī and Brahmānanda Bhāratī, Śrī Viṣṇu Purī, Keśava Purī, Kṛṣṇānanda Purī, Śrī Nṛsiṁha Tīrtha and Sukhānanda Purī-these nine sannyāsī roots all sprouted from the trunk of the tree. Thus the tree stood steadfastly on the strength of these nine roots.


Paramānanda Purī: Paramānanda Purī belonged to a brāhmaṇa family of the Trihut district in Uttara Pradesh. Mādhavendra Purī was his spiritual master. In relationship with Mādhavendra Purī, Paramānanda Purī was very dear to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. In the Caitanya-bhāgavata, Antya-līlā, there is the following statement:

sannyāsīra madhye īśvarera priya-pātra
āra nāhi eka purī gosāñi se mātra

dāmodara-svarūpa paramānanda-purī
sannyāsi-pārṣade ei dui adhikārī

niravadhi nikaṭe thākena dui jana
prabhura sannyāse kare daṇḍera grahaṇa

purī dhyāna-para dāmodarera kīrtana
yata-prīti īśvarera purī-gosāñire

dāmodara-svarūpereo tata prīti kare

“Among his sannyāsī disciples, Īśvara Purī and Paramānanda Purī were very dear to Mādhavendra Purī. Thus Paramānanda Purī, like Svarūpa Dāmodara, who was also a sannyāsī, was very dear to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and was His constant associate. When Lord Caitanya accepted the renounced order, Paramānanda Purī offered Him the daṇḍa. Paramānanda Purī was always engaged in meditation, and Śrī Svarūpa was always engaged in chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra. As Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu offered full respect to His spiritual master, Īśvara Purī, He similarly respected Paramānanda Purī and Svarūpa Dāmodara.” It is described in the Caitanya-bhāgavata, Antya-līlā, Chapter Three, that when Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu first saw Paramānanda Purī He made the following statement:

āji dhanya locana, saphala āji janma
saphala āmāra āji haila sarva-dharma

prabhu bale āji mora saphala sannyāsa
āji mādhavendra more ha-ilā prakāśa

“My eyes, My mind, My religious activities and My acceptance of the sannyāsa order have now all become perfect because today Mādhavendra Purī is manifest before Me in the form of Paramānanda Purī.” The Caitanya-bhāgavata further states:

kathokṣaṇe anyo ‘nye karena praṇāma
paramānanda-purī caitanyera priya-dhāma

“Thus Śri Caitanya Mahāprabhu exchanged respectful obeisances with Paramānanda Purī, who was very dear to Him.” Paramānanda Purī established a small monastery behind the western side of the Jagannātha temple, where he had a well dug to supply water. The water, however, was bitter, and therefore Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu prayed to Lord Jagannātha to allow Ganges water to come into the well to make it sweet. When Lord Jagannātha granted the request, Lord Caitanya told all the devotees that from that day hence, the water of Paramānanda Purī’s well should be celebrated as Ganges water, for any devotee who would drink it or bathe in it would certainly get the same benefit as that derived from drinking or bathing in the waters of the Ganges. Such a person would certainly develop pure love of Godhead. It is stated in the Caitanya-bhāgavata, Antya-līlā:

prabhu bale āmi ye āchiye pṛthivīte
niścaya-i jāniha purī-gosāñira prīte

“Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu used to say: ‘I am living in this world only on account of the excellent behavior of Śrī Paramānanda Purī.’ ” The Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā, verse 118, states, purī śrī-paramānando ya āsīd uddhavaḥ purā. “Paramānanda Purī is none other than Uddhava.” Uddhava was Lord Kṛṣṇa’s friend and uncle, and in caitanya-līlā the same Uddhava became the friend of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and His uncle in terms of their relationship in the disciplic succession.

Keśava Bhāratī: The Sarasvatī, Bhāratī and Purī sampradāyas belong to the Śṛṅgerī Maṭha in South India, and Śrī Keśava Bhāratī, who at that time was situated in a monastery in Katwa, belonged to the Bhāratī-sampradāya. According to some authoritative opinions, although Keśava Bhāratī belonged to the Śaṅkara-sampradāya, he had formerly been initiated by a Vaiṣṇava. He is said to have been a Vaiṣṇava on account of having been initiated by Mādhavendra Purī, for some say that he took sannyāsa from Mādhavendra Purī. The temple and Deity worship started by Keśava Bhāratī are still existing in the village known as Khāṭundi, which is under the postal jurisdiction of Kāndarā in the district of Burdwan. According to the managers of that maṭha, the priests are descendants of Keśava Bhāratī, and some say that the worshipers of the Deity are descendants of the sons of Keśava Bhāratī. In his householder life he had two sons, Niśāpati and Ūṣāpati, and a brāhmaṇa of the name Śrī Nakaḍicandra Vidyāratna, who was a member of the family of Niśāpati, was the priest in charge at the time that Śrī Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī visited this temple. According to some, the priests of the temple belong to the family of Keśava Bhāratī’s brother. Still another opinion is that they descend from Mādhava Bhāratī, who was another disciple of Keśava Bhāratī’s. Mādhava Bhāratī’s disciple Balabhadra, who also later became a sannyāsī of the Bhāratī-sampradāya, had two sons in his family life, named Madana and Gopāla. Madana, whose family’s surname was Bhāratī, lived in the village of Āuriyā, and Gopāla, whose family’s surname was Brahmacārī, lived in the village of Denduḍa. There are still many living descendants of both families.

In the Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā, verse 52, it is said:

mathurāyāṁ yajña-sūtraṁ
purā kṛṣṇāya yo muniḥ
dadau sāndīpaniḥ so ‘bhūd
adya keśava-bhāratī

“Sāndīpani Muni, who formerly offered the sacred thread to Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma, later became Keśava Bhāratī.” It is he who offered sannyāsa to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. There is another statement from the Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā, verse 117: iti kecit prabhāṣante ‘krūraḥ keśava-bhāratī. “According to some authoritative opinions, Keśava Bhāratī is an incarnation of Akrūra.” Keśava Bhāratī offered the sannyāsa order to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu in the year 1432 śakābda (A.D. 1510) in Katwa. This is stated in the Vaiṣṇava-mañjuṣā, Part Two.

Brahmānanda Purī: Śrī Brahmānanda Purī was one of the associates of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu while He was performing kīrtana in Navadvīpa, and he also joined Lord Caitanya in Jagannātha Purī. We may note in this connection that the name Brahmānanda is accepted not only by Māyāvādī sannyāsīs but by Vaiṣṇava sannyāsīs also. One of our foolish Godbrothers criticized our sannyāsī Brahmānanda Svāmī, saying that this was a Māyāvādī name. The foolish man did not know that Brahmānanda does not always refer to the impersonal. Parabrahman, the Supreme Brahman, is Kṛṣṇa. A devotee of Kṛṣṇa can therefore also be called Brahmānanda; this is evident from the fact that Brahmānanda Purī was one of the chief sannyāsī associates of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Brahmananda Bhāratī: Brahmānanda Bhāratī went to see Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Mahāprabhu at Jagannātha-dhāma. At that time he used to wear only a deerskin to cover himself, and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu indirectly indicated that He did not like this deerskin covering. Brahmānanda Bhāratī therefore gave it up and accepted a loincloth of saffron color, as used by Vaiṣṇava sannyāsīs. For some time he lived with Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu at Jagannātha Purī.


madhya-mūla paramānanda purī mahā-dhīra

aṣṭa dike aṣṭa mūla vṛkṣa kaila sthira


madhya-mūla-the middle root; paramānanda purī-of the name Paramānanda Purī; mahā-dhīra-most sober; aṣṭa dike-in the eight directions; aṣṭa mūla-eight roots; vṛkṣa-the tree; kaila sthira-fixed.


With the sober and grave Paramānanda Purī as the central root and the other eight roots in the eight directions, the tree of Caitanya Mahāprabhu stood firmly.


skandhera upare bahu śākhā upajila

upari upari śākhā asaṅkhya ha-ila


skandhera upare-upon the trunk; bahu śākhā-many branches; upajila-grew; upari upari-over and above them; śākhā-other branches; asaṅkhya-innumerable; ha-ila-fructified.


From the trunk grew many branches and above them innumerable others.


viśa viśa śākhā kari’ eka eka maṇḍala

mahā-mahā-śākhā chāila brahmāṇḍa sakala


viśa viśa-twenty, twenty; śākhā-branches; kari’-making a group; eka eka maṇḍala-form a society; mahā-mahā-śākhā-big branches; chāila-covered; brahmāṇḍa-the whole universe; sakala-all.


Thus the branches of the Caitanya tree formed a cluster or society, with great branches covering all the universe.


Our International Society for Krishna Consciousness is one of the branches of the Caitanya tree.


ekaika śākhāte upaśākhā śata śata

yata upajila śākhā ke gaṇibe kata


ekaika-each branch; śākhāte-in the branch; upaśākhā-subbranches; śata śata-hundreds and hundreds; yata-all; upajila-grew; śākhā-branches; ke-who; gaṇibe-can count; kata-how much.


From each branch grew many hundreds of subbranches. No one can count how many branches thus grew.


mukhya mukhya śākhā-gaṇera nāma agaṇana

āge ta’ kariba, śuna vṛkṣera varṇana


mukhya mukhya-the foremost of them all; śākhā-gaṇera-of the branches; nāma-name; agaṇana-uncountable; āge-subsequently; ta’ kariba-I shall do; śuna-please hear; vṛkṣera varṇana-the description of the Caitanya tree.


I shall try to name the foremost of the innumerable branches. Please hear the description of the Caitanya tree.


vṛkṣera upare śākhā haila dui skandha

eka ‘advaita’ nāma, āra ‘nityānanda’


vṛkṣera-of the tree; upare-on the top; śākhā-branch; haila-became; dui-two; skandha-trunks; eka-one; advaita-Śrī Advaita Prabhu; nāma-of the name; āra-and; nityānanda-of the name Nityānanda Prabhu.


At the top of the tree the trunk branched into two. One trunk was named Śrī Advaita Prabhu and the other Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu.


sei dui-skandhe bahu śākhā upajila

tāra upaśākhā-gaṇe jagat chāila


sei-that; dui-skandhe-in two trunks; bahu-many; śākhā-branches; upajila-grew; tāra-of them; upaśākhā-gaṇe-subbranches; jagat-the whole world; chāila-covered.


From these two trunks grew many branches and subbranches that covered the entire world.


baḍa śākhā, upaśākhā, tāra upaśākhā

yata upajila tāra ke karibe lekhā


baḍa śākhā-the big branches; upaśākhā-subbranches; tāra-their; upaśākhā-subbranches; yata-all that; upajila-grew; tāra-of them; ke-who; karibe-can count; lekhā-or write.


These branches and subbranches and their subbranches became so numerous that no one can actually write about them.


śiṣya, praśiṣya, āra upaśiṣya-gaṇa

jagat vyāpila tāra nāhika gaṇana


śiṣya-disciples; praśiṣya-granddisciples; ara-and; upaśiṣya-gaṇa-admirers; jagat-the whole world; vyāpila-spread; tāra-of that; nāhika-there is none; gaṇana-enumeration.


Thus the disciples and the granddisciples and their admirers spread throughout the entire world, and it is not possible to enumerate them all.


uḍumbara-vṛkṣa yena phale sarva aṅge

ei mata bhakti-vṛkṣe sarvatra phala lāge


uḍumbara-vṛkṣa-a big fig tree; yena-as if; phale-grew fruits; sarva-all; aṅge-parts of the body; ei-this; mata-like; bhakti-vṛkṣe-in the tree of devotional service; sarvatra-all over; phala-fruit; lāge-appears.


As a big fig tree bears fruits all over its body, each part of the tree of devotional service bore fruit.


This tree of devotional service is not of this material world. It grows in the spiritual world, where there is no distinction between one part of the body and another. It is something like a tree of sugar, for whichever part of such a tree one tastes, it is always sweet. The tree of bhakti has varieties of branches, leaves and fruits, but they are all meant for the service of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. There are nine different processes of devotional service (śravaṇaṁ kīrtanaṁ viṣṇoḥ smaraṇaṁ pāda-sevanam arcanaṁ vandanaṁ dāsyaṁ sakhyam ātma-nivedanam), but all of them are meant only for the service of the Supreme Lord. Therefore whether one hears, chants, remembers or worships, his activities will yield the same result. Which one of these processes will be the most suitable for a particular devotee depends upon his taste.


mūla-skandhera śākhā āra upaśākhā-gaṇe

lāgilā ye prema-phala,–amṛtake jine


mūla-skandhera-of the chief trunk; śākhā-branches; āra-and; upaśākhā-gaṇe-subbranches; lāgilā-as it grew; ye-that; prema-phala-the fruit of love; amṛtake jine-such a fruit conquers nectar.


Since Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Mahāprabhu was the original trunk, the taste of the fruits that grew on the branches and subbranches surpassed the taste of nectar.


pākila ye prema-phala amṛta-madhura

vilāya caitanya-mālī, nāhi laya mūla


pākila-ripened; ye-that; prema-phala-the fruit of love of Godhead; amṛta-nectarean; madhura-sweet; vilāya-distributes; caitanya-mālī-the gardener, Lord Caitanya; nāhi-does not; laya-take; mūla-price.


The fruits ripened and became sweet and nectarean. The gardener, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, distributed them without asking any price.


tri-jagate yata āche dhana-ratnamaṇi

eka-phalera mūlya kari’ tāhā nāhi gaṇi


tri-jagate-in the three worlds; yata-as much as; āche-there is; dhana-ratna-maṇi-wealth and riches; eka-phalera-one fruit’s; mūlya-price; kari’-calculated; tāhā-that; nāhi-do not; gaṇi-count.


All the wealth in the three worlds cannot equal the value of one such nectarean fruit of devotional service.


māge vā nā māge keha, pātra vā apātra

ihāra vicāra nāhi jāne, deya mātra


māge-begs; vā-or; nā-not; māge-begs; keha-anyone; pātra-candidate; vā-or; apātra-not a candidate; ihāra-of this; vicāra-consideration; nāhi-does not; jāne-know; deya-gives; mātra-only.


Not considering who asked for it and who did not, nor who was fit and who unfit to receive it, Caitanya Mahāprabhu distributed the fruit of devotional service.


This is the sum and substance of Lord Caitanya’s saṅkīrtana movement. There is no distinction made between those who are fit and those who are not fit to hear or take part in the saṅkīrtana movement. It should therefore be preached without discrimination. The only purpose of the preachers of the saṅkīrtana movement must be to go on preaching without restriction. That is the way in which Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu introduced this saṅkīrtana movement to the world.


añjali añjali bhari’ phele caturdiśe

daridra kuḍāñā khāya, mālākāra hāse


añjali-handful; añjali-handful; bhari’-filling; phele-distributes; catur-diśe-in all directions; daridra-poor; kuḍāñā-picking up; khāya-eats; mālā-kāra-the gardener; hāse-smiles.


The transcendental gardener, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, distributed handful after handful of fruit in all directions, and when the poor hungry people ate the fruit, the gardener smiled with great pleasure.


mālākāra kahe,–śuna, vṛkṣa-parivāra

mūlaśākhā-upaśākhā yateka prakāra


mālā-kāra-the gardener; kahe-said; śuna-hear; vṛkṣa-parivāra-the family of this transcendental tree of devotional service; mūla-śākhā-chief branches; upaśākhā-subbranches; yateka-as many; prakāra-varieties.


Lord Caitanya thus addressed the multifarious varieties of branches and subbranches of the tree of devotional service:


alaukika vṛkṣa kare sarvendriya-karma

sthāvara ha-iyā dhare jaṅgamera dharma


alaukika-transcendental; vṛkṣa-tree; kare-does; sarva-indriya-all senses; karma-activities; sthāvara-immovable; ha-iyā-becoming; dhare-accepts; jaṅgamera-of the movable; dharma-activities.


“Since the tree of devotional service is transcendental, every one of its parts can perform the action of all the others. Although a tree is supposed to be immovable, this tree nevertheless moves.


It is our experience in the material world that trees stand in one place, but in the spiritual world a tree can go from one place to another. Therefore everything in the spiritual world is called alaukika, uncommon or transcendental. Another feature of such a tree is that it can act universally. In the material world the roots of a tree go deep within the earth to gather food, but in the spiritual world the twigs, branches and leaves of the upper portion of the tree can act like the roots.


e vṛkṣera aṅga haya saba sa-cetana

bāḍiyā vyāpila sabe sakala bhuvana


e-this; vṛkṣera-of the Caitanya tree; aṅga-parts; haya-are; saba-all; sa-cetana-spiritually cognizant; bāḍiyā-increasing; vyāpila-overflooded; sabe-all the parts; sakala-all; bhuvana-the world.


“All the parts of this tree are spiritually cognizant, and thus as they grow up they spread all over the world.


ekalā mālākāra āmi kāhāṅ kāhāṅ yāba

ekalā vā kata phala pāḍiyā vilāba


ekalā-alone; mālā-kāra-gardener; āmi-I am; kāhāṅ-where; kāhāṅ-where; yāba-shall I go; ekalā-alone; vā-or; kata-how many; phala-fruits; pāḍiyā-picking; vilāba-shall distribute.


“I am the only gardener. How many places can I go? How many fruits can I pick and distribute?


Here Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu indicates that the distribution of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra should be performed by combined forces. Although He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, He laments, “How can I act alone? How can I alone pick the fruit and distribute it all over the world?” This indicates that all classes of devotees should combine to distribute the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra without consideration of the time, place or situation.


ekalā uṭhāñā dite haya pariśrama

keha pāya, keha nā pāya, rahe mane bhrama


ekalā-alone; uṭhāñā-picking up; dite-to give; haya-it becomes; pariśrama-too laborious; keha-someone; pāya-does get; keha-someone; nā-not; pāya-does get; rahe-remains; mane-in the mind; bhrama-suspicion.


“It would certainly be a very laborious task to pick the fruits and distribute them alone, and still I suspect that some would receive them and others would not.


ataeva āmi ājñā diluṅ sabākāre

yāhāṅ tāhāṅ prema-phala deha’ yāre tāre


ataeva-therefore; āmi-I; ājñā-order; diluṅ-give; sabākāre-to everyone; yāhāṅ-wherever; tāhāṅ-everywhere; prema-phala-the fruit of love of Godhead; deha’-distribute; yāre-anyone; tāre-everyone.


“Therefore I order every man within this universe to accept this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement and distribute it everywhere.


In this connection there is a song sung by Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura:

enechi auṣadhi māyā nāśibāra lāgi’
hari-nāma-mahā-mantra lao tumi māgi’

bhakativinoda prabhu-caraṇe paḍiyā
sei hari-nāma-mantra laila māgiyā

The saṅkīrtana movement has been introduced by Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu just to dispel the illusion of māyā, by which everyone in this material world thinks himself to be a product of matter and therefore to have many duties pertaining to the body. Actually, the living entity is not his material body: he is a spirit soul. He has a spiritual need to be eternally blissful and full of knowledge, but unfortunately he identifies himself with the body, sometimes as a human being, sometimes as an animal, sometimes a tree, sometimes an aquatic, sometimes a demigod, and so on. Thus with each change of body he develops a different type of consciousness with different types of activity and thus becomes increasingly entangled in material existence, transmigrating perpetually from one body to another. Under the spell of māyā, or illusion, he does not consider the past or future but is simply satisfied with the short life span that he has gotten for the present. To eradicate this illusion, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu has brought the saṅkīrtana movement, and He requests everyone to accept and distribute it. A person who is actually a follower of Śrī Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura must immediately accept the request of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu by offering respectful obeisances unto His lotus feet and thus beg from Him the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra. If one is fortunate enough to beg from the Lord this Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra, his life is successful.


ekalā mālākāra āmi kata phala khāba

nā diyā vā ei phala āra ki kariba


ekalā-alone; mālā-kāra-gardener; āmi-I; kata-how many; phala-fruits; khāba-eat; nā-without; diyā-giving; vā-or; ei-this; phala-fruits; āra-else; ki-what; kariba-shall I do.


“I am the only gardener. If I do not distribute these fruits, what shall I do with them? How many fruits can I alone eat?


Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu produced so many fruits of devotional service that they must be distributed all over the world; otherwise, how could He alone relish and taste each and every fruit? The original reason that Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa descended as Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was to understand Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s love for Kṛṣṇa and to taste that love. The fruits of the tree of devotional service were innumerable, and therefore He wanted to distribute them unrestrictedly to everyone. Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī therefore writes:

anarpita-carīṁ cirāt karuṇayāvatīrṇaḥ kalau
samarpayitum unnatojjvala-rasāṁ sva-bhakti-śriyam
hariḥ puraṭa-sundara-dyuti-kadamba-sandīpitaḥ
sadā hṛdaya-kandare sphuratu vaḥ śacī-nandanaḥ

There were many precious incarnations of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but none were so generous, kind and magnanimous as Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, for He distributed the most confidential aspect of devotional service, namely, the conjugal love of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. Therefore Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī Prabhupāda desires that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu live perpetually in the hearts of all devotees, for thus they can understand and relish the loving affairs of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and Kṛṣṇa.


ātma-icchāmṛte vṛkṣa siñci nirantara

tāhāte asaṅkhya phala vṛkṣera upara


ātma-self; icchā-amṛte-by the nectar of the will; vṛkṣa-the tree; siñci-sprinkle; nirantara-constantly; tāhāte-there; asaṅkhya-unlimited; phala-fruits; vṛkṣera-on the tree; upara-upper.


“By the transcendental desire of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, water has been sprinkled all over the tree, and thus there are innumerable fruits of love of Godhead.


God is unlimited, and His desires are also unlimited. This example of unlimited fruits is factually appropriate even within the material context, for with the good will of the Supreme Personality of Godhead there can be enough fruits, grains and other foodstuffs produced so that all the people in the world could not finish them, even if they ate ten times their capacity. In this material world there is actually no scarcity of anything but Kṛṣṇa consciousness. If people become Kṛṣṇa conscious, by the transcendental will of the Supreme Personality of Godhead there will be enough foodstuffs produced so that people will have no economic problems at all. One can very easily understand this fact. The production of fruits and flowers depends not upon our will but the supreme will of the Personality of Godhead. If He is pleased, He can supply enough fruits, flowers, etc., but if people are atheistic and godless, nature, by His will, restricts the supply of food. For example, in several provinces in India, especially Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and other adjoining states, there is sometimes a great scarcity of foodstuffs due to lack of rainfall. So-called scientists and economists cannot do anything about this. Therefore, to solve all problems, one must seek the good will of the Supreme Personality of Godhead by becoming Kṛṣṇa conscious and worshiping Him regularly in devotional service.


ataeva saba phala deha’ yāre tāre

khāiyā ha-uk loka ajara amare


ataeva-therefore; saba-all; phala-fruits; deha’-distribute; yāre tāre-to everyone and anyone; khāiyā-eating; ha-uk-let them become; loka-all people; ajara-without old age; amare-without death.


“Distribute this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement all over the world. Let people eat these fruits and ultimately become free from old age and death.


The Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement introduced by Lord Caitanya is extremely important because one who takes to it becomes eternal, being freed from birth, death and old age. People do not recognize that the real distresses in life are the four principles of birth, death, old age and disease. They are so foolish that they resign themselves to these four miseries, not knowing the transcendental remedy of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra. Simply by chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra, one can become free from all misery, but because they are enchanted by the illusory energy, people do not take this movement seriously. Therefore those who are actually servants of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu must seriously distribute this movement all over the world to render the greatest benefit to human society. Of course, animals and other lower species are not capable of understanding this movement, but if even a small number of living beings take it seriously, by their chanting loudly, all living entities, including even trees, animals and other lower species, will be benefited. When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu inquired from Haridāsa Ṭhākura how he was to benefit living entities other than humans, Śrīla Haridāsa Ṭhākura replied that the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra is so potent that if it is chanted loudly, everyone will benefit, including the lower species of life.


jagat vyāpiyā mora habe puṇya khyāti

sukhī ha-iyā loka mora gāhibeka kīrti


jagat vyāpiyā-spreading all over the world; mora-My; habe-there will be; puṇya-pious; khyāti-reputation; sukhī-happy; ha-iyā-becoming; loka-all the people; mora-My; gāhibeka-glorify; kīrti-reputation.


“If the fruits are distributed all over the world, My reputation as a pious man will be known everywhere, and thus all people will glorify My name with great pleasure.


This prediction of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s is now actually coming to pass. The Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is being distributed all over the world through the chanting of the holy name of the Lord, the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra, and people who were leading confused, chaotic lives are now feeling transcendental happiness. They are finding peace in saṅkīrtana, and therefore they are acknowledging the supreme benefit of this movement. This is the blessing of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. His prediction is now factually being fulfilled, and those who are sober and conscientious are appreciating the value of this great movement.


bhārata-bhūmite haila manuṣya janma yāra

janma sārthaka kari’ kara para-upakāra


bhārata-of India; bhūmite-in the land; haila-has become; manuṣya-human being; janma-birth; yāra-anyone; janma-such a birth; sārthaka-fulfillment; kari’-doing so; kara-do; para-others; upakāra-benefit.


“One who has taken his birth as a human being in the land of India [Bhārata-varṣa] should make his life successful and work for the benefit of all other people.


The magnanimity of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu is expressed in this very important verse. Although He was born in Bengal and Bengalis therefore have a special duty toward Him, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is addressing not only Bengalis but all the inhabitants of India. It is in the land of India that actual human civilization can be developed.

Human life is especially meant for God realization, as stated in the Vedānta-sūtra: athāto brahma-jijñāsā. Anyone who takes birth in the land of India (Bhārata-varṣa) has the special privilege of being able to take advantage of the instruction and guidance of the Vedic civilization. He automatically receives the basic principles of spiritual life, for 99.9% of the Indian people, even simple village farmers and others who are neither educated nor sophisticated, believe in the transmigration of the soul, believe in past and future lives, believe in God and naturally want to worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead or His representative. These ideas are the natural inheritance of a person born in India. India has many holy places of pilgrimage, such as Gayā, Benares, Mathurā, Prayāga, Vṛndāvana, Haridvāra, Rāmeśvaram and Jagannātha Purī, and still people go there by the hundreds and thousands. Although the present leaders of India are influencing the people not to believe in God, not to believe in a next life and not to believe in a distinction between pious and impious life, and they are teaching them how to drink wine, eat meat and become supposedly civilized, people are nevertheless afraid of the four activities of sinful life-namely, illicit sex, meat-eating, intoxication and gambling-and whenever there is a religious festival, they gather together by the thousands. We have actual experience of this. Whenever the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement holds a saṅkīrtana festival in a big city like Calcutta, Bombay, Madras, Ahmedabad or Hyderabad, thousands of people come to hear. Sometimes we speak in English, but even though most people do not understand English, they nevertheless come to hear us. Even when imitation incarnations of Godhead speak, people gather in the thousands, for everyone who is born in the land of India has a natural spiritual inclination and is taught the basic principles of spiritual life; they merely need to be a little more educated in the Vedic principles. Therefore Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, janma sārthaka kari’ kara para-upakāra: if an Indian is educated in the Vedic principles, he is able to perform the most beneficial welfare activity for the entire world.

At present, for want of Kṛṣṇa consciousness, or God consciousness, the entire world is in darkness, having been covered by the four principles of sinful life-meat-eating, illicit sex, gambling and intoxication. Therefore there is a need for vigorous propaganda to educate people to refrain from sinful activities. This will bring peace and prosperity; the rogues, thieves and debauchees will naturally decrease in number, and all of human society will be God conscious.

The practical effect of our spreading the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement all over the world is that now the most degraded debauchees are becoming the most elevated saints. This is only one Indian’s humble service to the world. If all Indians had taken to this path, as advised by Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, India would have given a unique gift to the world, and thus India would have been glorified. Now, however, India is known as a poverty-stricken country, and whenever anyone from America or another opulent country goes to India, he sees many people lying by the footpaths for whom there are not even provisions for two meals a day. There are also institutions collecting money from all parts of the world in the name of welfare activities for poverty-stricken people, but they are spending it for their own sense gratification. Now, on the order of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement has been started, and people are benefiting from this movement. Therefore it is now the duty of the leading men of India to consider the importance of this movement and train many Indians to go outside of India to preach this cult. People will accept it, there will be cooperation among the Indian people and among the other people of the world, and the mission of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu will then be fulfilled. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu will then be glorified all over the world, and people will naturally be happy, peaceful and prosperous, not only in this life but also in the next, for as stated in the Bhagavad-gītā, anyone who understands Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, will very easily get salvation, or freedom from the repetition of birth and death, and go back home, back to Godhead. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu therefore requests every Indian to become a preacher of His cult to save the world from disastrous confusion.

This is not only the duty of Indians but the duty of everyone, and we are very happy that American and European boys and girls are seriously cooperating with this movement. One should know definitely that the best welfare activity for all of human society is to awaken man’s God consciousness, or Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Therefore everyone should help this great movement. This is confirmed in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, Tenth Canto, Twenty-second Chapter, verse 35, which is next quoted in Caitanya-caritāmṛta.


etāvaj janma-sāphalyaṁ

dehinām iha dehiṣu

prāṇair arthair dhiyā vācā

śreya-ācaraṇaṁ sadā


etāvat-up to this; janma-of birth; sāphalyam-perfection; dehinām-of every living being; iha-in this world; dehiṣu-toward those who are embodied; prāṇaiḥ-by life; arthaiḥ-by wealth; dhiyā-by intelligence; vācā-by words; śreyaḥ-eternal good fortune; ācaraṇam-acting practically; sadā-always.


“It is the duty of every living being to perform welfare activities for the benefit of others with his life, wealth, intelligence and words.”


There are two kinds of general activities-śreyas, or activities which are ultimately beneficial and auspicious, and preyas, or those which are immediately beneficial and auspicious. For example, children are fond of playing. They don’t want to go to school to receive an education, and they think that to play all day and night and enjoy with their friends is the aim of life. Even in the transcendental life of Lord Kṛṣṇa, we find that when He was a child He was very fond of playing with His friends of the same age, the cowherd boys. He would not even go home to take His dinner. Mother Yaśodā would have to come out to induce Him to come home. Thus it is a child’s nature to engage all day and night in playing, not caring even for his health and other important concerns. This is an example of preyas, or immediately beneficial activities. But there are also śreyas, or activities which are ultimately auspicious. According to Vedic civilization, a human being must be God conscious. He should understand what God is, what this material world is, who he is, and what their interrelationships are. This is called śreyas, or ultimately auspicious activity.

In this verse of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam it is said that one should be interested in śreyas. To achieve the ultimate goal of śreyas, or good fortune, one should engage everything, including his life, wealth and words, not only for himself but for others also. However, unless one is interested in śreyas in his own life, he cannot preach of śreyas for the benefit of others.

This verse cited by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu applies to human beings, not to animals. As indicated in the previous verse by the words manuṣya-janma, these injunctions are for human beings. Unfortunately, human beings, although they have the bodies of men, are becoming less than animals in their behavior. This is the fault of modern education. Modern educators do not know the aim of human life; they are simply concerned with how to develop the economic condition of their countries or of human society. This is also necessary; the Vedic civilization considers all aspects of human life, including dharma (religion), artha (economic development), kāma (sense gratification) and mokṣa (liberation). But humanity’s first concern should be religion. To be religious, one must abide by the orders of God, but unfortunately people in this age have rejected religion, and they are busy in economic development. Therefore they will adopt any means to get money. For economic development one does not need to get money by hook or by crook; one needs only sufficient money to maintain his body and soul. However, because modern economic development is going on with no religious background, people have become lusty, greedy and mad after money. They are simply developing the qualities of rajas (passion) and tamas (ignorance), neglecting the other quality of nature, sattva (goodness), and the brahminical qualifications. Therefore the entire society is in chaos.

The Bhāgavatam says that it is the duty of an advanced human being to act in such a way as to facilitate human society’s attainment of the ultimate goal of life. There is a similar verse in the Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part Three, Chapter Twelve, verse 45, which is quoted in this chapter of Caitanya-caritāmṛta as verse 43.


prāṇinām upakārāya

yad eveha paratra ca

karmaṇā manasā vācā

tad eva mati-mān bhajet


prāṇinām-of all living entities; upakārāya-for the benefit; yat-whichever; eva-certainly; iha-in this world or in this life; paratra-in the next life; ca-and; karmaṇā-by work; manasā-by the mind; vācā-by words; tat-that; eva-certainly; mati-mān-an intelligent man; bhajet-must act.


” ‘By his work, thoughts and words, an intelligent man must perform actions which will be beneficial for all living entities in this life and in the next.’


Unfortunately, people in general do not know what is to take place in the next life. To prepare oneself for his next life is common sense, and it is a principle of the Vedic civilization, but presently people throughout the world do not believe in a next life. Even influential professors and other educators say that as soon as the body is finished, everything is finished. This atheistic philosophy is killing human civilization. People are irresponsibly performing all sorts of sinful activities, and thus the privilege of the human life is being taken away by the educational propaganda of the so-called leaders. Actually it is a fact that this life is meant for preparation for the next life; by evolution one has come through many species, or forms, and this human form of life is an opportunity to promote oneself to a better life. This is explained in the Bhagavad-gītā (9.25):

yānti deva-vratā devān
pitṝn yānti pitṛ-vratāḥ
bhūtāni yānti bhūtejyā
yānti mad-yājino ‘pi mām

“Those who worship the demigods will take birth among the demigods;those who worship ghosts and spirits will take birth among such beings; those who worship ancestors go to the ancestors; and those who worship Me will live with Me.” Therefore, one may promote himself to the higher planetary systems, which are the residence of the demigods, one can promote himself to the Pitṛloka, one can remain on earth, or one can also go back home, back to Godhead. This is further confirmed elsewhere in the Bhagavad-gītā (4.9): tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti mām eti so ‘rjuna. After giving up the body, one who knows Kṛṣṇa in truth does not come back again to this world to accept a material body, but he goes back home, back to Godhead. This knowledge is in the śāstras, and people should be given the opportunity to understand it. Even if one is not able to go back to Godhead in one life, the Vedic civilization at least gives one the opportunity to be promoted to the higher planetary systems, where the demigods live, and not glide down again to animal life. At present, people do not understand this knowledge, although it constitutes a great science, for they are uneducated and trained not to accept it. This is the horrible condition of modern human society. As such, the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is the only hope to direct the attention of intelligent men to a greater benefit in life.


mālī manuṣya āmāra nāhi rājya-dhana

phala-phula diyā kari’ puṇya upārjana


mālī-gardener; manuṣya-man; āmāra-My; nāhi-there is none; rājya-kingdom; dhana-wealth; phala-fruit; phula-flowers; diyā-giving; kari’-do; puṇya-piety; upārjana-achievement.


“I am merely a gardener. I have neither a kingdom nor very great riches. I simply have some fruits and flowers that I wish to utilize to achieve piety in My life.


In performing welfare activities for human society, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu presents Himself as being not very rich, thus indicating that a man need not be rich or opulent to act for the welfare of humanity. Sometimes rich men are very proud that they can perform beneficial activities for human society whereas others cannot. A practical example is that when there is a scarcity of food in India on account of meager rainfall, some members of the richer class very proudly distribute foodstuffs, making huge arrangements with the help of the government, as if merely by such activities people will be benefited. Suppose there were no food grains. How would the rich men distribute food? Production of grains is completely in the hands of God. If there were no rain, there would be no grains, and these so-called rich men would be unable to distribute grains to the people.

The real purpose of life, therefore, is to satisfy the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī describes in his Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu that devotional service is so exalted that it is beneficial and auspicious for every man. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu also declared that to propagate the bhakti cult of devotional service in human society, one does not need to be very rich. Anyone can do it and thus render the highest benefit to humanity if he knows the art. Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu takes the part of a gardener because although a gardener is naturally not a very rich man, he has some fruits and flowers. Any man can collect some fruits and flowers and satisfy the Supreme Personality of Godhead in devotional service, as the Lord recommends in the Bhagavad-gītā (9.26):-

patraṁ puṣpaṁ phalaṁ toyaṁ
yo me bhaktyā prayacchati
tad ahaṁ bhakty-upahṛtam
aśnāmi prayatātmanaḥ

One cannot satisfy the Supreme Lord by his riches, wealth or opulent position, but anyone can collect a little fruit or a flower and offer it to the Lord. The Lord says that if one brings such an offering in devotion, He will accept it and eat it. When Kṛṣṇa eats, the entire world becomes satisfied. There is a story in the Mahābhārata illustrating how by Kṛṣṇa’s eating, the sixty thousands disciples of Durvāsā Muni were all satisfied. Therefore it is a fact that if by our life (prāṇaiḥ), by our wealth (arthaiḥ), by our intelligence (dhiyā) or by our words (vācā) we can satisfy the Supreme Personality of Godhead, naturally the entire world will become happy. Therefore our main duty is to satisfy the Supreme Godhead by our actions, our money and our words. This is very simple. Even if one does not have money, he can preach the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra to everyone. One can go everywhere, to every home, and request everyone to chant the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra. Thus the entire world situation will become very happy and peaceful.


mālī hañā vṛkṣa ha-ilāṅ ei ta’ icchāte

sarva-prāṇīra upakāra haya vṛkṣa haite


mālī hañā-although I am the gardener; vṛkṣa ha-ilāṅ-I am also the tree; ei ta’-this is; icchāte-by My will; sarva-prāṇīra-of all living entities; upakāra-welfare; haya-there is; vṛkṣa-the tree; haite-from.


“Although I am acting as a gardener, I also want to be the tree, for thus I can bestow benefit upon all.


Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is the most benevolent personality in human society because His only desire is to make people happy. His saṅkīrtana movement is especially meant for the purpose of making people happy. He wanted to become the tree Himself because a tree is supposed to be the most benevolent living entity. In the following verse, which is from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.22.33), Kṛṣṇa Himself highly praised the existence of a tree.


aho eṣāṁ varaṁ janma


su-janasyeva yeṣāṁ vai

vimukhā yānti nārthinaḥ


aho-oh, just see; eṣām-of these trees; varam-superior; janma-birth; sarva-all; prāṇi-living entities; upajīvinām-one who provides maintenance; su-janasya iva-like the great personalities; yeṣām-from whose; vai-certainly; vimukhāḥ-disappointed; yānti-goes away; na-never; arthinaḥ-one who is asking for something.


” ‘Just see how these trees are maintaining every living entity! Their birth is successful. Their behavior is just like that of great personalities, for anyone who asks anything from a tree never goes away disappointed.’ “


According to Vedic civilization, kṣatriyas are considered to be great personalities because if anyone goes to a kṣatriya king to ask for charity, the king will never refuse. The trees are compared to those noble kṣatriyas because everyone derives all kinds of benefits from them-some people take fruit, others take flowers, others take leaves, others take twigs, and others even cut the tree, and yet the tree gives to everyone without hesitation.

Unnecessarily cutting trees without consideration is another example of human debauchery. The paper industry cuts many hundreds and thousands of trees for its mills, and with the paper so much rubbish literature is published for the whimsical satisfaction of human society. Unfortunately, although these industrialists are now happy in this life by dint of their industrial development, they do not know that they will incur the responsibility for killing these living entities who are in the forms of trees.

This verse, quoted from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, was spoken by Lord Kṛṣṇa to His friends when He was taking rest underneath a tree after His pastime of stealing the clothes of the gopīs (vastra-haraṇa-līlā). By quoting this verse, Caitanya Mahāprabhu teaches us that we should be tolerant like trees and also beneficial like trees, which give everything to the needy persons who come underneath them. A needy person may derive many advantages from trees and also from many animals, but in modern civilization people have become so ungrateful that they exploit the trees and animals and kill them. These are some of the sinful activities of modern civilization.


ei ājñā kaila yadi caitanya-mālākāra

parama ānanda pāila vṛkṣa-parivāra


ei-this; ājñā-order; kaila-gave; yadi-when; caitanya-Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; mālā-kāra-as a gardener; parama-the greatest; ānanda-pleasure; pāila-got; vṛkṣa-of the tree; parivāra-descendants.


The descendants of the tree [the devotees of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu] were very glad to receive this order directly from the Lord.


It is the desire of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu that the benevolent activities of the saṅkīrtana movement, which was inaugurated five hundred years ago in Navadvīpa, be spread all over the world for the benefit of all human beings. Unfortunately, there are many so-called followers of Caitanya Mahāprabhu who are satisfied simply to construct a temple, make a show of the Deities, collect some funds and utilize them for eating and sleeping. There is no question of their preaching the cult of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu all over the world. But even though they are unable to do so, if anyone else does it they become envious. This is the condition of the modern followers of Caitanya Mahāprabhu. The Age of Kali is so strong that it affects even the so-called followers of Lord Caitanya. At least the followers of Caitanya Mahāprabhu must come out of India to preach His cult all over the world, for this is the mission of Lord Caitanya. The followers of Lord Caitanya must execute His will with heart and soul, being more tolerant than the trees and humbler than the straw in the street.


yei yāhāṅ tāhāṅ dāna kare prema-phala

phalāsvāde matta loka ha-ila sakala


yei-anyone; yāhāṅ-wherever; tāhāṅ-anywhere; dāna-charity; kare-gives in; prema-phala-the fruit of love of Godhead; phala-fruit; āsvāde-by tasting; matta-intoxicated; loka-people; ha-ila-become; sakala-all.


The fruit of love of God is so relishable that wherever a devotee distributes it, those who taste the fruit, anywhere in the world, immediately become intoxicated.


Here the wonderful fruit of love of Godhead distributed by Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu is described. We have practical experience that anyone who accepts this fruit and sincerely tastes it immediately becomes mad after it and gives up all his bad habits, being intoxicated by Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s gift, the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra. The statements of Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta are so practical that anyone can test them. As far as we are concerned, we are most confident of the success of the distribution of the great fruit of love of Godhead through the medium of chanting the mahā-mantra-Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare.


mahā-mādaka prema-phala peṭa bhari’ khāya

mātila sakala loka–hāse, nāce, gāya


mahā-mādaka-great intoxicant; prema-phala-this fruit of love of God; peṭa-belly; bhari’-filling; khāya-let them eat; mātila-became mad; sakala loka-all the people in general; hāse-laugh; nāce-dance; gāya-chant.


The fruit of love of Godhead distributed by Caitanya Mahāprabhu is such a great intoxicant that anyone who eats it, filling his belly, immediately becomes maddened by it, and automatically he chants, dances, laughs and enjoys.


keha gaḍāgaḍi yāya, keha ta’ huṅkāra

dekhi’ ānandita hañā hāse mālākāra


keha-some of them; gaḍāgaḍi yāya-roll on the floor; keha-some of them; ta’-certainly; huṅkāra-hum very loudly; dekhi’-seeing this; ānandita-gladdened; hañā-becoming so; hāse-smiles; mālā-kāra-the great gardener.


When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, the great gardener, sees that people are chanting, dancing and laughing and that some of them are rolling on the floor and some are making loud humming sounds, He smiles with great pleasure.


This attitude of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is very important for persons engaged in the Hare Kṛṣṇa movement of Kṛṣṇa consciousness. In every center of our institution, ISKCON, we have arranged for a love feast every Sunday, and when we actually see people come to our center, chant, dance, take prasāda, become jubilant and purchase books, we know that certainly Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is always present in such transcendental activities, and He is very pleased and satisfied. Therefore the members of ISKCON must increase this movement more and more, according to the principles that we are presently trying to execute. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, thus being pleased, will smilingly glance upon them, bestowing His favor, and the movement will be successful.


ei mālākāra khāya ei prema-phala

niravadhi matta rahe, vivaśa-vihvala


ei-this; mālā-kāra-great gardener; khāya-eats; ei-this; prema-phala-fruit of love of Godhead; niravadhi-always; matta-maddened; rahe-remains; vivaśa-as if helpless; vihvala-as if bewildered.


The great gardener, Lord Caitanya, personally eats this fruit, and as a result He constantly remains mad, as if helpless and bewildered.


It is the mission of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu to act Himself and teach the people. He says, āpani ācari’ bhakti karila pracāra (Cc. Ādi 4.41). One must first act himself and then teach. This is the function of a real teacher. Unless one is able to understand the philosophy that he speaks, it will not be effective. Therefore one should not only understand the philosophy of the Caitanya cult but also implement it practically in one’s life.

While chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu sometimes fainted and remained unconscious for many hours. He prays in His Śikṣāṣṭaka (7):

yugāyitaṁ nimeṣeṇa
cakṣuṣā prāvṛṣāyitam
śūnyāyitaṁ jagat sarvaṁ
govinda-viraheṇa me

“O Govinda! Feeling Your separation, I am considering a moment to be like twelve years or more. Tears are flowing from My eyes like torrents of rain, and I am feeling all vacant in the world in Your absence.” This is the perfectional stage of chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra and eating the fruit of love of Godhead, as exhibited by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. One should not artificially imitate this stage, but if one is serious and sincerely follows the regulative principles and chants the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra, the time will come when these symptoms will appear. Tears will fill his eyes, he will be unable to chant distinctly the mahā-mantra, and his heart will throb in ecstasy. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu says that one should not imitate this, but a devotee should long for the day to come when such symptoms of trance will automatically appear in his body.


sarva-loke matta kailā āpana-samāna

preme matta loka vinā nāhi dekhi āna


sarva-loke-all people; matta-maddened; kailā-He made; āpana-Himself; samāna-like; preme-in love of God; matta-maddened; loka-people in general; vinā-without; nāhi-do not; dekhi-we see; āna-anything else.


With His saṅkīrtana movement the Lord made everyone mad like Himself. We do not find anyone who was not intoxicated by His saṅkīrtana movement.


ye ye pūrve nindā kaila, bali’ mātoyāla

seho phala khāya, nāce, bale–bhāla bhāla


ye ye-persons who; pūrve-before; nindā-blasphemy; kaila-made; bali’-saying; mātoyāla-drunkard; seho-such persons; phala-fruit; khāya-takes; nāce-dance; bale-say; bhāla bhāla-very good, very good.


Persons who had formerly criticized Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, calling Him a drunkard, also ate the fruit and began to dance, saying, “Very good! Very good!”


When Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu started the saṅkīrtana movement, even He was unnecessarily criticized by Māyāvādīs, atheists and fools. Naturally we are also criticized by such men. They will always remain and will always criticize anything that is actually good for human society. But the preachers of the saṅkīrtana movement should not be deterred by such criticism. Our method should be to convert such fools gradually by asking them to come and take prasāda and chant and dance with us. This should be our policy. Anyone who comes to join us, of course, must be sincere and serious regarding spiritual advancement in life; then such a person, simply by joining us, chanting with us, dancing with us and taking prasāda with us, will gradually also come to say that this movement is very good. But one who joins with an ulterior purpose, to get material benefit or personal gratification, will never be able to grasp the philosophy of this movement.


ei ta’ kahiluṅ prema-phala-vitaraṇa

ebe śuna, phala-dātā ye ye śākhā-gaṇa


ei-this; ta’-however; kahiluṅ-I have explained; prema-phala-the fruit of love of Godhead; vitaraṇa-distribution; ebe-now; śuna-hear; phala-dātā-the giver of the fruit; ye ye-who and who; śākhā-gaṇa-branches.


After describing the Lord’s distribution of the fruit of love of Godhead, I now wish to describe the different branches of the tree of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu.


śrī-rūpa-raghunātha-pade yāra āśa

caitanya-caritāmṛta kahe kṛṣṇadāsa


śrī-rūpa-Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī; raghunātha-Śrīla Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī; pade-at the lotus feet; yāra-whose; āśa-expectation; caitanya-caritāmṛta-the book named Caitanya-caritāmṛta; kahe-describes; kṛṣṇa-dāsa-Śrīla Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī.


Praying at the lotus feet of Śrī Rūpa and Śrī Raghunātha, always desiring their mercy, I, Kṛṣṇadāsa, narrate Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, following in their footsteps.

Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports to Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Ādi-līlā, Ninth Chapter, describing the tree of devotional service.